EPICS IOC Applications
Source Release Control

Marty Kraimer and Janet Anderson
Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source
July 17, 1997
EPICS Release 3.13.0.beta11

Quick Start

If you are new to EPICS or are trying a new release, then follow the instructions in section Quick Start. Look at all the files that are generated. They give examples of how to manage each of the IOC components.


The procedures described in this document use soft links in two places. Since soft links are not supported on winXX some changes will be necessary to use the procedures on winXX.

This document discusses template files. In the future these will no longer be used. Our intention is to let makeBaseApp evolve such that template files are no longer necessary. For now the template files can be obtained via the WWW APS software distribution system.

Currently two versions of makeBaseApp exist: A bourne shell version and a perl version. For beta11, the bourne shell version is the primary version. In the next release of base only the perl version will be supported. Starting soon the perl version will be made available via the WWW as a separate product. Thus new versions can be distributed without waiting for new versions of base.



Several EPICS Application Source/Release systems are available. Your site may have adapted one of them. Consult your EPICS system manager. This manual describes procedures that can be used for simple or complicated applications.

This document describes how to create and build IOC applications. This includes:

In addition procedures are described for managing large applications. The principle features are:

User Prerequisites

This manual assumes that the reader:

System Prerequisites

Before you can generate EPICS IOC applications your HOSTand/or EPICS System Manager must have done the following:

Make vs. Gnumake

EPICS provides an extensive set of make rules. These rules only work with the GNU version of make, gnumake, which is supplied by the Free Software Foundation. Thus, on most Unix systems, the native make will not work. On some systems, e.g. Linux, GNU make may be the default. This manual always uses gnumake in the examples.

Quick Start

This section explains how to quickly create an example IOC application in a directory <top> and named example.

Check Environment

Execute the command:

echo $HOST_ARCH 

This should display your workstation architecture.

Create example Application

Note: Two versions of makeBaseApp are available: makeBaseApp, which is a bourne shell script, and makeBaseApp.pl, which is a perl script.

Execute the commands:

mkdir <top>
cd <top>
<base>/bin/<arch>/makeBaseApp -e example


<top> - Is any directory name you chose
<base> - Full path name to EPICS base.
<arch> - Your host architecture.

For example at ANL/APS the following commands create an application:

mkdir myapp
cd myapp
/usr/local/epics/baseR3.13.0.beta11/bin/solaris/makeBaseApp \
      -e example 

Modify File

File <top>/iocBoot/iocexample/Makefile must be edited. This file has a line:

ARCH = ???

Change this to your target architecture. e.g. mv167.

Note: makeBaseApp.pl does this automatically

Inspect Files

Spend some time looking at the files that appear under <top>. Do this BEFORE building.


In directory <top> execute the command:


Inspect Files

Again look at all the files that appear under <top>.

boot Parameters

The next step is to set the IOC boot parameters via the console serial port on your IOC. Life is much easier if you find out how to connect the serial port to a window on your workstation. See your EPICS system manager for details.

The vxWorks boot parameters look something like the following:

boot device          : xxx
processor number     : 0
host name            : xxx
file name            : <top>/iocBoot/iocexample/vxWorks
inet on ethernet (e) : xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:<netmask>
inet on backplane (b):
host inet (h)        : xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
gateway inet (g)     :
user (u)             : xxx
ftp password (pw) (blank = use rsh): xxx
flags (f)            : 0x0
target name (tn)     : <hostid for channel access security>
startup script (s)   : st.cmd
other (o)            : 

The actual values for each field are site and IOC dependent. Consult your EPICS system manager for help. Two fields that you can change at will are the vxWorks boot image and the location of the startup script.


You are now ready to boot your IOC. If your boot parameters are defined properly, just press the reset button on your IOC. You will find it VERY convenient to have the console port of the IOC attached to a scrolling window on your workstation.


See the description of the example given in section makeBaseApp below. Also try some of the vxWorks shell commands described in chapter "IOC Test facilities" of the Application Developer's Guide.



Before EPICS base release 3.13, APS/ASD used an Application Source Release control system called appSR. appSR uses sccs for source file control. Since appSR was written several things that impact S/R control have changed.

For the above reasons we decided to redo the APS/ASD IOC Applications S/R control system. Our goals were:

A major decision is What Directory Structure should we use. Before the original appSR was written a lot of discussion went into this topic. There were several meetings between the Application Developers and Bob Zieman, who implemented appSR. This directory structure was used to implement the entire APS/ASD contol system software. Thus a lot of correct decisions were made. The only major problem is that it was not easy to share code, mainly record/device/driver support, across <top> areas. This resulted in sharing by copying source modules from one <top> area to another. When one developer would make changes to a source module, the other developers would often not even be aware of the changes. Thus over time the source modules evolved in different directions.

Since the overall directory layout appears to be correct, it is kept in the new system. A brief description of the APS/ASD environment may help explain why the directory layout works.

One other topic to discuss before describing the overall directory structure is the idealized Application Development Cycle. It consists of the following steps:

  1. Define I/O requirements.
    This involves meeting with the user, in this case the Engineers who are responsible for the application in order to decide the types and number of I/O modules needed.
  2. Assemble control hardware and software.
    This includes IOCs, I/O modules, software device/driver support, etc. If EPICS software support is not already available it has to be written and tested.
  3. Build databases, sequence programs, etc.

In reality there is overlap between these steps. In addition as new needs arise the three steps again have to be performed. However, an application developer tends to spend a large part of his/her attention on each step before moving on to the next step.

The application structure described in the next section is designed to meet these needs.

Overview of Application Source Release Control

The application directory structure appears as follows:


Each <top> area is a separately managed set of applications. Separately managed means that each <top> can be using it's own release of software obtained from outside the application, e.g. a release of EPICS base.

Within a <top> area, multiple xxxApp subdirectories and a single iocBoot directory appear. The xxxApp areas are created by application developers as needed. The iocBoot directory contains a subdirectory for each ioc that belongs to that <top> area. No IOC belongs to more than one <top> area. All software components needed by IOCs are built in the xxxApp directories. Each IOC is booted from it's subdirectory under iocBoot. The only important source file in a boot directory is the st.cmd file which is executed after vxWorks is started on an ioc. The st.cmd file merely loads various files built in the xxxApp directories.

Application developers decide what constitutes a <top>. For example, at APS, the Linac is completely contained in a single <top> area, while the RF is spread over three <top> areas: parrf, boosterrf, and srrf. No <top> area, however, contains iocxxx directories from multiple subsystems.

Now lets describe how the application developers use the above structure.

Under xxxApp are source and database directories. A source directory contains source files for building executables and database description files. Makefiles specify what to build. These makefiles can specify components obtained from outside the <top> area, such as EPICS base. After modifing files in this directory the command:


will rebuild components that depend on the modified files. (It will be seen below that the generated components are actually copied to an install directory)

The database directories contain IOC database files and/or template and substitution files used to generate database files. If templates are used then whenever a template or substitution file is modified the command gnumake will recreate the database file(s).

After changes are made in any xxxApp directory the affected IOCs can be rebooted from the appropriate iocBoot subdirectory. If new components are added it may be necessary to modify st.cmd files.


As mentioned above the one major defect with the old appSR system is that there was no easy way to share code across <top> areas. To solve this problem a new <top> area called share is present. It is structured somewhat differently than other <top> areas but development in it is done just like in any other <top>. Releases of share are created. A release contains built and installed object modules. Other <top> areas take things from releases of share rather then from share itself.

The releases of share, which are dependent on releases of epics base, are named:


where XXX is the epics base release and YYY is a release of share for that base release. The share releases are stored at locations:


If it is necessary to obtain a bug fix or enhancement to a single module from EPICS base or a share release, the application developer has at least two choices. The first is to build a new release of base or share. A second choice is to copy the source module to an appropriate src directory and build it there. In this case you should do something so that you remember to use the version from share after share is rebuilt.

Note: Other software packages can be handled like share. For example at APS/ASD our applications use releases of sharerf, epicsHideos, and hideos.


The following tools are used:

Classes of Users

Application System Manager :
The Application System Manager is responsible for the Operations Area.
Application Developer :
Anyone who tests, modifies, or extends an application's software. If multiple developers are working on the same system each should develop in a private development area.


Version Management with CVS for CVS 1.9, Per Cederqvist et al.

GNU Make, Edition .51 for make Version 3.75 Beta, May 1996, Richard M. Stallman and Ronald McGrath

EPICS: Application Developer's Guide R3.13, Marty Kraimer

Directory Structure


*           CONFIG
*           CONFIG_APP
*           RELEASE
*           RULES.Host
*           RULES.Vx
            src/ or xxxSrc
*               Makefile.Host
*               Makefile.Vx
*               base.dbd
*               baseLIBOBJS
*               <app>Include.dbd
*               <example and/or user supplied code>
*               <example and/or user supplied state programs>
*               <user menu, recordtype, device, driver database defs>
            Db/ or xxxDb
*               <record instance files>
*               <record template and substitution files>
            privately managed directories
*               Makefile
*               st.cmd
**      dbd/
            <installed database description files>
**      include/
            <installed include files>
**      bin/
                < installed Host executables >
                <installed ioc products>
**      lib/
**      man/

Files marked with an "*" are user created and/or edited. Each such file is discussed in this chapter.

Files marked with "**" are directories created by gnumake. Since gnumake uninstall removes all files in these directories, no permanent files should be created in these directories.


The directories are:

Directory containing configuration files for gnumake.
Directory containing source files and database files. An arbitrary number of xxxApp directories are allowed. Each must have App appended to the name because Makefile looks for it.
src or xxxSrc
Directory containing source files. An arbitrary number of source directories can appear under each xxxApp. The names must be src or end in Src. A source directory is where C code, sequence programs, scripts, etc. are created and built.
Directory containing record instance files. An arbitrary number of Db directories can exist under each xxxApp, but each must have Db appended to the name because the Makefile looks for it. Each Db directory can contain record instance, template, and substitution files. The name Db, without any suffix, is also permitted.
Directory containing a subdirectory for each ioc.
Directory from which ioc iocxxx is booted. Each must have ioc prepended to the name because iocBoot/Makefile looks for it.
Installed Database Definitions Directory.
Include Directory. The directory in which include files generated from menu and record type definitions are installed.
Bin Directory. This directory contains a subdirectory for the host architecture and for each target architectiure. These are the directories in which executables, binaries, etc. are installed.
Library Directory. This directory contains a subdirectory for the host architecture and for each target architectiure. These are the directories in which libraries are installed.
Man pages Directory. This directory contains a subdirectory for each section of the Unix style man pages. This is where man pages are installed.


The makefiles are described below in section Description of Makefiles below.


These files contain definitions included in the various makefiles.

This is the file in which you add to or modify make variables in epics base. A useful definition to override is:

This specifies the vxWorks architecture to build. If your site builds base for multiple target architectures but your iocs only use a single architecture, overriding this variables saves build time.

You should not edit this file unless you are using external products besides epics_base, share, and master_iocapps. If you are using additional external products follow the model used by the template file share/config/CONFIG_APP.
This file specifies the location of external products such as epics base. The procedures for going to a new release of an external product are described later in this chapter. One step in the procedures is to edit this file. The config files created by makeBaseApp provide support for the following variables:


This variable must be defined.
This variable which is optional, specifies the location of a release of a <top> area containing code that can be shared by other applications.
If <top> applications are placed under cvs control, then it is possible to check out a subset of the *Apps and obtain the rest from a fully populated version of <top>. This variable specifies the location of the master area.

IMPORTANT:Each of the above variables must be specified with a full path name.

This file contains rules for building database files from templates.
The template file includes the RULES.Host from base. If you want to add rules that apply to all Makefile.Host files then this is the place to add the rules.
The template file includes the RULES.Vx from base. If you want to add rules that apply to all Makefile.Vx files then this is the place to add the rules.
This is a file containing rules for the Makefiles in the directories from which iocs are booted. It makes the soft links needed to boot an ioc. It should not be necessary to modify this file.
This is a file containing rules for the Makefiles in the iocBoot directory. It should not be necessary to modify this file.
This file includes the RULES_ARCHS from base. It is seldom necessary to modify this file.
This file includes the RULES_DIRS from base. It is seldom necessary to modify this file.
All applications except SHARE just include SHARE/config/RULES_TOP. In SHARE, if MASTER_IOCAPPS is defined, rules are present to make soft links to files in the install directories of MASTER_IOCAPPS.

base.dbd and <app>Include.dbd

These files are used to configure database definitions for the following:

When gnumake is executed, an expanded file, i.e. a file with all include statements expanded, is installed into:


with the name specified by DBDNAME in Makefile.Vx.

base.dbd contains definitions obtained from the base release. It contains definitions like:

    include "menuGlobal.dbd"
    include "menuConvert.dbd"
    include "aiRecord.dbd"
    #include "aaiRecord.dbd"
    device(ai,CONSTANT,devAiSoft,"Soft Channel")
    #device(ai,CONSTANT,devAiSoftRaw,"Raw Soft Channel")

Thus it has a definition for all menus, record types, devices, and drivers supplied in EPICS base. Some record types and ALL hardware device and driver support are proceeded by the comment symbol "#". You are expected to edit this file and select the desired support routines, by removing the "#" from the desired support.

File <app>Include.dbd, which contains definitions like:

    include "base.dbd"
    #local menu, record, device, driver, breakpoint definitions

is the place where you define locally built support.


This file defines all the object modules for record, device, and driver support supplied by EPICS. Since the file is intimately related to base.dbd, if base.dbd (is, is not) used in a particular xxxApp/src directory, then baseLIBOBJS should (be, not be) used in that directory.

baseLIBOBJS contains definitions as follows:

    #LIBOBJS += $(EPICS_BASE_BIN)/aaiRecord.o
    #LIBOBJS += $(EPICS_BASE_BIN)/aaoRecord.o
    LIBOBJS += $(EPICS_BASE_BIN)/aiRecord.o
    # Device Support
    #LIBOBJS += $(EPICS_BASE_BIN)/devAaiCamac.o
    # Driver support ANSI
    #LIBOBJS += $(EPICS_BASE_BIN)/drvAb.o

Thus it has a definition for all record, device, and drivers supplied in EPICS base. Some record types and ALL hardware device and driver support are proceeded by the comment symbol "#". You are expected to edit this file and select the desired support routines, by removing the '#' from the front of the appropriate lines. Makefile.Vx contains rules that will combine all support into a single module called xxxSupport.

APOLOGY: It would be nice if this file could be automatically generated. This is not possible because there is no naming convention for device support source files.


The vxWorks startup file is described in a later section.


NOTE: two versions of makeBaseApp exist. makeBaseApp is a bourne script and makeBaseApp.pl is a perl script. They produce nearly identical results.

makeBaseApp is executed by issuing the commands:

    mkdir <top>    # If <top> does not exist
    cd <top>
    <base>/bin/<arch>/makeBaseApp [-e] <app> ...

makeBaseApp does the following: 

The user is expected to edit (or possibly remove) the files marked with an "*". The directory Db can be renamed as long as the last two characters remain Db. Additional xxxDb directories can be created manually. After each xxxDb directory is created, the Makefile can be copied from another Db directory.

The directory src can be renamed as long as the new name ends in Src. Additional source directories can be manually created. After each directory is created makefiles can be copied from another source directory and edited.

IMPORTANT: After creating new applications with makeBaseApp, <app>/iocBoot/ioc<app>/Makefile must be edited to specify the ioc architecture.

The remainder of this section gives a brief description of the files generated if makeBaseApp is executed with the -e option.

A Host application that interfaces to Channel Access. It is executed from a Unix shell by issuing the command:
    caExample "pvname"

It issues a Channel Access get request for the specified process variable and prints the value. If you have booted an ioc from the example then try the following:

This is an example of record instances. Each name is proceeded by <userid>, which is the userid of the person who executed makeBaseApp. The records are:
This is a passive ai (analog input) record which obtains its input from record calcExample,
This is a calc (calculation) record that acts as a counter that continually counts from 0 to 9. It is scanned once a second. It also has a forward link to aiExample. Since aiExample is passive it will also scan once a second.
This is a sample record of type xxx, as described below. It is a passive record. You can change its VAL field via a Channel Access client or via the dbpf IOC command.
This is a sequencer, i.e. state notation language, example. It prints a message on the IOC console every time the VAL field of record <userid>xxxExample becomes > 5.0 and also every time it becomes <=5.0..
xxxRecord.dbd xxxRecord.c
A skeleton record support module. The record support module is the one described in the Application Developer's Guide.
A device support module for xxxRecord. The device support module provides synchronous support for the record support.


NOTE: The commands dbLoadDatabase, dbExpand, and dbLoadRecords are described in Chapter 4, "Database Definition" of the Application Developer's Guide.

This file is the vxWorks startup file. The version created by makeBaseApp is:

The first ld command loads the core EPICS components. File xxxLib is installed when gnumake is run in the <top>/xxxApp/src directory. It contains the executable for all record, device, and driver support as well as any other application specific object modules. If an IOC wants to use support generated in a sub-application src directory, this statement will have to be changed to coincide with the LIBNAME value.

The dbLoadDatabase command loads the definitions of all menus, record types, device support, driver support, and breakpoint tables needed in this IOC. These are actually expanded files created by dbExpand and installed into dbd. If an application wants to use database definitions generated in a sub-application src directory, this statement will have to be changed to coincide with the DBDNAME value.

The command:


is an example command for loading record instances. One of these commands is supplied for each record instance file.

The iocInit command initializes the EPICS system.

The remaining commands in the file show how to load and start sequence programs.


The file <top>/config/RELEASE contains definitions for components obtained form outside <top>. If you want to link to a new release of anything defined in the file do the following:

cd <top>
gnumake clean uninstall
vi <top>/config/RELEASE
cd <top>

Note that all definitions in <top>/config/RELEASE must be complete path definitions, i.e. relative path names are not permitted.


Where Executed

Make can be executed in any subdirectory where a Makefile appears, which is almost every subdirectory.

The most useful commands at the top level directory are:
The most useful command at this level is
    gnumake rebuild

which is the same as issuing "gnumake rebuild" in each subdirectory of xxxApp.

xxxApp/src or xxxApp/xxxSrc
Running the command:
in a src directory builds all out of date Host and IOC components described by the files Makefile.Host and Makefile.Vx. The builds are performed in subdirectories O.<arch>.

It is possible to build for a single architecture via the command:

    gnumake <arch>

For example, if your IOC is an MV167 system, then the directory is O.mv167, and the make command is:

    gnumake mv167

Another useful command is:

    gnumake clean

This removes everything generated in the O. directories. ".<arch>" can be appended to invoke clean for a particular architecture.

Executing gnumake in this directory creates the link for dbd and also generates database instance files from templates.
The most useful command at this level is

which is the same as issuing "gnumake" in each subdirectory of iocBoot.

If the Makefile includes RULES.iocBoot then a file nfsCommands must exist in the iocBoot directory. Running make generates a file nfs.cmd, which contains everthing in the nfsCommands file in addition to a command to cd to the iocBoot directory. The st.cmd file in the iocxxx directory can then start with the commands:

    < ../nfs.cmd
    cd "iocxxx"

This provides an easy way to use NFS for all file access from the ioc. See the template files for examples.

Executing gnumake in this directory creates soft links for use by the st.cmd file.

make targets

The following is a summary of targets that can be specified for gnumake:


sun4, solaris, hp700, mv167, etc.
host - Builds for host architecture only.
cross - builds for vxWorks architecture(s) only.
clean, inc, install, build, rebuild, buildInstall, uninstall, or tar
NOTE: uninstall and tar can only be specified at <top>
subdirectory name

Description of Makefiles


This makefile performs a make in the xxxApp and iocBoot subdirectories. In addition it allows other top level make options described below. There is seldom need to modify this file.


This makefile just executes make in src and each *Db subdirectory.


This file specifies Host components, which can be defined in Makefile.Host. Replace <arch_class> in the following by the specific architecture class.

USR_CFLAGS                      C compiler flags for all systems
USR_CFLAGS_<arch_class>         os-specific C compiler flags
USR_CFLAGS_DEFAULT              C compiler flags for systems with no
                                USR_CFLAGS_<arch_class> specified

USR_CXXFLAGS                    C++ compiler flags for all systems
USR_CXXFLAGS_<arch_class>       os-specific C++ compiler flags
USR_CXXFLAGS_DEFAULT            C++ compiler flags for systems with no
                                USR_CXXFLAGS_<arch_class> specified

INC                             include-files to install for all systems
INC_<arch_class>                os-specific includes go to the
INC_DEFAULT                     include-files to install for systems
                                with no INC_<arch_class> specified

LIBSRCS                         source files for building library,
                                specified as OIBSRCS := xxx.c yyy.c zzz.c
LIBSRCS_<arch_class>            os-specific library source files 
LIBSRCS_DEFAULT                 library source files for systems with no
                                USR_CFLAGS_<arch_class> specified

PROD_LIBS                       libs needed to link PROD for all systems
PROD_LIBS_<arch_class>          os-specific libs needed to link PROD
PROD_LIBS_DEFAULT               libs needed to link PROD for systems with
                                no PROD_LIBS_<arch_class> specified

PROD                            Product names (without execution suffix)
                                to build and install
PROD_<arch_class>               os-specific products to build and install
PROD_DEFAULT                    products to build and install for systems
                                with no PROD_<arch_class> specified

SCRIPTS                         scripts to install
SCRIPTS_<arch_class>            os-specific scripts to install
SCRIPTS_DEFAULT                 scripts to install for systems with no
                                PROD_<arch_class> specifieD

LIBTYPE:=SHARED                 Library type. IF shared library is
                                desired LIBTYPE must be defined 

SRCS                            Source files needed to build PROD
                                (e.g. SRCS=a.c b.c c.c )

USER_VPATH                      List of directories that gnumake should
                                search for files not in current dir.

LIBRARY                         Name of library to build. The name should
                                NOT include a prefix or extension, i.e.
                                specify Ca NOT libCa.a

TESTPROD                        Product names (without execution suffix)
                                to build but not install

INSTALL_DIR                     Location of install directory (default $(TOP))

MAN1,MAN2,MAN3...               Name of man files to be installed
                                into $(INSTALL_DIR)/man/mani directory

DOCS                            Name of text files to be installed into
                                the $(INSTALL_DIR)/doc directory

TEMPLATES_DIR                   Template directory to be created,
TEMPLATES                       List of template files to be installed
                                into $(TEMPLATE_DIR)

USR_CPPFLAGS                    cpp flags
USR_INCLUDES                    Directories to search for include files
                                (e.g. -I$(EPICS_EXTENSIONS_BIN) )
USR_LDFLAGS                     linker options
USR_LDLIBS                      load libraries (e.g. -lXt -lX11 )

YACCOPT                         yacc options
LEXOPT                          lex options
SNCFLAGS                        snc options
E2DB_FLAGS                      e2db options
SCH2EDIF_FLAGS                  sch2edif options
RANLIBFLAGS                     ranlib options

<target>_CFLAGS                 target specific C compiler flags (e.g. xxxRecord_CFLAGS )
<target>_CXXFLAGS               target specific C++ compiler flags
<target>_CPPFLAGS               target specific cpp flags
<target>_LDFLAGS                target specific ld flags
<target>_LDLIBS                 target specific ld libraries (e.g. -lX11 -lXt )

UNIX_WARN                       Are compiler warning messages desired
                                (YES or NO) (default is NO)
UNIX_OPT                        Optimization level  (default is no optimization)

STATIC_BUILD                    Is static build desired (YES or NO)
                                (default is NO)


The following components can be built:

Breakpoint Tables
For each breakpoint table add the following definition
        BPTS += <table name>.dbd
Record Support
For each new record type, the following definitions must be added to the makefile:
    RECTYPES += <rectype>Record.h
    LIBOBJS += <rectype>Record.o
and the record support files:
must exist.
If a menuXXX.dbd file is present, then add the following definition.
    MENUS += menu<name>.h
Device, Driver, other C modules
For each such module, add a definition:
    LIBOBJS += <name>.o
Each file will be placed in the library specified by LIBNAME.
It is also possible to generate object files not placed in LIBNAME via the definitions:
    PROD += <name>.o
    TARGETS += <name>.o

Both will cause the specified file to be generated, PROD will also install the generated file into <top>/bin/<target_arch>.

A file containing all LIBOBJS is installed into <top>/bin/<arch> with the name specified by LIBNAME. If Makefile.Vx appears in xxxApp/src, the definition should be:
    LIBNAME = xxxLib
    LIBNAME_CXX = xxxLib

The first is for c libraries and the second for c++ libraries.

Expanded Database Definition File

Files containing database definition files are expanded by utility dbExpand and installed into <top>/dbd. The following variables are available.

    DBDEXPAND += xxxInclude.dbd
    DBDNAME = xxxApp.dbd
    USER_DBDFLAGS += -I <include path>
    USER_DBDFLAGS += -S <macro substitutions>

    DBDINSTALL += xxx.dbd


  • DBDEXPAND - A file containing database definitions.
  • DBDNAME - The name of the file containing expanded definitions to be created and installed into <top>/dbd.
  • USER_DBDFLAGS - Flags for dbExpand. Currently only an include path and macro substitution are supported.
  • DBDINSTALL - Installs the file into <top>/dbd.
  • State Notation Programs
    For each state notation program, add the definition:
        LIBOBJS += <name>.o
    The state notation programs must be named <name>.st.
    Scripts, etc.
    A definition of the form:
        SCRIPTS += <name>
    results in file <name> being installed from the src directory to the <top>/bin/<arch> directory.

    vxWorks, vxWorks.sym, iocCore, and seq
    In order to have vxWorks, vxWorks.sym, iocCore, and seq in the bin directory, the following must appear:
    INSTALLS += vxWorks vxWorks.sym iocCore seq
    NOTE: INSTALLS only needs to appear in one application.

    Other definitions

    USR_CFLAGS      C compiler flags
    USR_CXXFLAGS    C++ compiler flags
    USR_INCLUDES    Include directory (e.g. -I$(EPICS_EXTENSIONS_BIN) )
    USR_LDFLAGS     linker options
    INC             include-files to install
    MAN1,MAN2,...   Man files to be installed 
    BIN_INSTALLS    Files in any directory to install to $(INSTALL_BIN)
    DOCS            Text files to install into  $(INSTALL_DIR)/doc
    YACCOPT         yacc options
    LEXOPT          lex options
    CPPFLAGS        cpp options
    SNCFLAGS        snc options
    E2DB_FLAGS      e2db options
    SCH2EDIF_FLAGS  sch2edif options
    <target>_CFLAGS         target specific C compiler flags
    <target>_CXXFLAGS       target specific C++ compiler flags
    <target>_CPPFLAGS       target specific cpp flags
    <target>_SNCFLAGS       target specific state notation language flags
    <target>_LDFLAGS        target specific ld flags
    VX_WARN         Compiler warning messages desired (YES or NO) (default NO)
    VX_OPT          Optimization level  (default is no optimization)
    INSTALL_DIR     Installation directory (defaults to $(TOP))


    This makefile performs the following functions:


    This executes make in each subdirectory.


    This makefile creates soft links used in the st.cmd file. make sure that the definition:

            ARCH = <arch>

    refers to the correct architecture for your ioc processor.


    The CVS utility is used to put all user editable files under source/release control. This section gives a brief description of the commands normally used by application developers. Consult the CVS manual for more details.


    Your environment variable CVSROOT should point to the CVS repository for IOC Applications. The following command displays the location of CVSROOT:

        echo $CVSROOT

    At APS/ASD the command should show:



    This section gives a brief description of the CVS commands. Wherever <filename> is shown a list of filenames is allowed. If <filename> is not specified then most commands apply to the entire directory and all subdirectories.

    A useful option for cvs is:

        cvs -n <command>

    This will execute the command without making any changes.

        cvs help

    gives overall cvs help.

    Initial Checkout
    Each user performs application development in his/her private area. The developer must checkout iocsys/ascf. Then entire <top> areas can be checked out or else just a subset of a <top> area.

    The first step is to checkout ascf. The easiest way is to create the application area with a high level directory called iocsys. The following commands are issued:

        cd <anywhere>
        cvs checkout iocsys/ascf

    iocsys will appear as a subdirectory of <anywhere>. If <anywhere> is null then iocsys appears in the user's home directory.

    Checkout Entire <top> Area
    To check out an entire <top> area issue the commands:
        cd <anywhere>
        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>
    iocsys/<top> appears under <anywhere>
    Checkout Subset of <top> Area
    It is possible to checkout a subset of the the xxxApps and a subset of the iocBoot directories. The commands to accomplish this are:
        cd <anywhere>
        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/Makefile
        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/config
        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/xxxApp

    The entire iocBoot directory can be checked out via the command:

        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/iocBoot

    A subset of the iocBoot directory can be checked out via the commands:

        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/iocBoot/Makefile
        cvs checkout iocsys/<top>/iocBoot/iocxxx
    Files (or complete directory trees including and entire <top> area) can have a watch placed on them. When a watch is placed on a directory cvs creates working copies read only. Users must execute a cvs edit command to obtain a read/write file. Facilities are provided to list all people editing a file and to be sent an e-mail message whenever someone executes the cve edit or commit commands for a watched file. Please read the cvs manual for details.
    If you want to edit a file and it is read only because a watch is in effect then execute the command:
            cvs edit <filename>
    If you have started editing a file and decide to abandon your changes or not make any changes issue the command:
            cvs unedit <filename>
    The command:
        cvs add <filename>

    places a directory or file under CVS control. This command must be given for each directory and file to be added to the repository.

    The command:
        cvs rm <filename>

    removes the specified file from the repository. The file is not actually deleted but is moved to the "attic". Thus previous versions can still be retrieved.

    The command:
        cvs diff <filename>

    compares the working copy of the file with the version that was checked out out or updated from the repository.

    The diff command has options that allow you to see the differences between any two versions committed to the repository.

    The command:
        cvs update -d -A <filename>

    brings the development area into sync with the latest versions committed to the repository. A message is given for each file or directory that is modified. A message starting with the letter


    means that a conflict exists. Conflicts must be resolved manually.

    The two specified options (add new directories and reset sticky tags) should normally be specified.

    The command:
    cvs commit <filename>

    commits changes to the repository. You are asked for comments via your favorite editor.

    The command:
    cvs status <filename>

    Shows the status of the file. The -v option shows all tag information for the file.

    The command:
    cvs log <filename>

    displays a list of all commits to the specified file..

    Any directory can contain a file with the name .cvsignore. It contains a list of file and directory names that should be ignored by CVS. For example all generated directories and files should be listed in .cvsignore.
    The command:
    tag <official release name>
    is used by the Application System Manager to tag official application releases.
    This command is used to put an existing tree of files into the cvs repository. Assume that a developer has created a new directory tree for a new <top> application in a directory newapp. It can be imported into the repository via the command:
    cvs import -m "Creating" iocsys/newapp newapp start


    The following directory structure contains templates for Makefiles and for rules:


    A set of template files can be obtained via the WWW epics software distribution facility at APS.

    Multiple Top Level Applications

    APS/ASD manages its entire set of <top> level applications under a single directory structure:

                <share releases>